It is not only the return of a positive drugs test that can result in an Anti-Doping Rule Violation (ADRV). There are ten ADRVs that can result in a sanction.
Rule violations are not only applicable to athletes. Coaches or athlete support personnel could be liable for violations such as tampering with the doping control process or trafficking banned substances.
An ADRV is committed if:
- a prohibited substance is found in an athlete’s bodily specimen (blood or urine)
- an athlete uses, or attempts to use, a prohibited substance and/or prohibited method
- an athlete fails or refuses to submit to sample collection after notification of testing
- an athlete provides inaccurate athlete Whereabouts information resulting in any combination of three missed tests and/or filing failures in a 12-month period
- there is tampering, or an attempt to tamper, with any part of the doping control process
- an athlete or athlete support person possesses a prohibited substance and/or prohibited method
- an athlete or athlete support person trafficks a prohibited substance and/or prohibited method
- an athlete or athlete support person administers, or attempts to administer, a prohibited substance and/or prohibited method to any athlete; or assists, encourages, aids, abets or covers up an ADRV.
- An athlete or athlete support personnel helps someone to commit an ADRV or to avoid detection
- an athlete associates themselves in a sporting or professional capacity with an ASP who is currently banned, criminally charged and/or formally disciplined or is acting as a front for someone who has.
Committing an ADRV means that an athlete, coach or athlete support person could be liable for a sanction which may include a ban from the sport. The sanction for intentional cheating is 4 years for the first offence and there is less leniency for carelessness – you are likely to receive a 2-year or more ban for inadvertent doping.
If banned, the athlete, coach or athlete support person cannot participate in their sport, or any other sport which follows WADA rules. In some circumstances, the ban can be a lifetime ban and this can happen on the first offence.